Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal - 871 Words

There are currently over 16,000 people legally sentenced to death worldwide. The State of Texas has 271 people on death row, the third most in America, but has executed the most people in the country. Twenty-five people have been executed this year in the U.S.; twelve of those have been executed in Texas (Facts). The death penalty must be abrogated because it is an ineffective, antiquated, and expensive form of punishment. Punishment by death has been around since Babylonian times, when the Code of Hammurabi introduced it. Since then, it has not evolved other than becoming more of a life for a life proposition. Studies show that the death penalty does not deter crime. Laws that are punishable by death are premeditated. People who are willing to die committing crimes do them anyways. A life for a life is not justice it is revenge. In addition to being useless, the death penalty is also an antiquated form of castigation. The time preceding execution can be agony for an inmate. Imagine spending 23 hours a day in a cement enclosure the size of a bathroom. Now imagine sitting in that small room nearly all day, every day without respite, for a year, five years, even 10 years. How long before you become restless and lonely? How long before you start pacing and talking to yourself? How long before you lose your mind? (Mann) Death row has become a place of torment where an individual’s only relief will be death. States have started to abolish the death penalty with non-retroactiveShow MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1261 Words   |  6 PagesThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal The death penalty should not be legal because of two major reasonings. These reasons are, the death penalty takes the lives of many innocent people, and it also costs too much. The death penalty should not be legal because innocent people are wrongly convicted and killed. According to the Death Penalty Information Center, it puts innocent lives at risk. At least 4.1% of all defendants sentenced to death in the United States in the modern era are innocent (DeathRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legal1457 Words   |  6 PagesThe death penalty can be traced all the way to biblical times when people were executed for many reasons such as: for not believing in their god(s), choosing to interact in sexual conduct while unmarried, stealing, murder, etc. The methods of execution back in those times were to either: stone, hang, slay, crucify, and burn not only the offender who committed the crime, but if he or she had a family, the entire family was executed with them as a warning to the people of their tribe or city to notRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Legal?985 Words   |  4 PagesBen Goble Mr. Newman English Comp. November 4, 2015 Should the Death Penalty be Legal? The death penalty, also called capital punishment, has been a topic of debate among the public for many years, gaining very little ground in changing the legality of it one way or the other. The topic is very controversial because many people feel that it is wrong to take the life of another person. On the other hand a very comparable number of people push for the legality of capital punishment for condemningRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1004 Words   |  5 Pagesabolish death penalty† (Bosman). In thirty-one states, federal government and military legal system, the death penalty is lawful. Even the Supreme Court has been changed direction of capital punishment. One day, it could be a legal and illegal by the Supreme Court. Most of European countries ban the death penalty except Belarus that if a criminal involve international terrorism, murdered, inhumane crime and the criminal receives death penalty. Nowadays, banned the death penalty becomeRead MoreDeath Penalty Should Be Legal943 Words   |  4 PagesDo you think that death penalty will give justice for the innocent lives? The death penalty continues to be an issue of controversy in the whole world because people have different beliefs for giving justice to the innocents. For some people, they want it legal because death penalty will give justice for the innocent victims and a form of vengeance to the criminals. On the flipside, other people don’t agree with it because a lot of innocents are putting into death. These people believe that it isRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1573 Words   |  7 PagesThere are many legal issues that come along with the death penalty. Ratified on December 15, 1791, The United States Bill of Rights states in its eight amendment, â€Å"Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.† (8th Amendment to the Constitutio n). The Supreme Court stated during the 1958 case of Trop v. Dulles, that the 8th amendment must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturingRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legal1555 Words   |  7 Pageshave on a person? The death penalty, or capital punishment, is one of the most debated topics in America. It has been used for centuries, but many claim it to be barbaric, and want the practice to end all together. The death penalty should only be used in cases where there is absolute evidence that the criminal is guilty, because life in prison can be an alternative, there are many flaws in the justice system, and it can be a cruel and unusual punishment. The death penalty is legal in 32 states, theRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legal1554 Words   |  7 Pagesreceive the death penalty. Some say it is what they deserve, while others say that it is a â€Å"cruel and unusual†punishment. States, such as New Jersey, have already banned the penalty, but some states are still pending on whether to have the penalty or to follow New Jersey’s path . If you were to go and ask people why they are against the death penalty, they would say it is because it goes against morality, constitutionality, and the irrevocable mistakes of putting the wrong person to death. WhenRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1553 Words   |  7 Pagescalled problems with our system of justice is the death penalty. Capital punishment in this country seems to have its pros and cons. There are more issues and complications with being sentenced to death, while the positives are minuscule. The death penalty should not be allowed in the United States, and there are many reasons for this argument. The death penalty has caused controversy in the country since it became popular. 31 states use the death penalty and is also used by the military. Its use isRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legal Essay2884 Words   |  12 Pagesis the death penalty - should it be legalized across the 50 states or be declared unconstitutional? Some believe the death penalty is a better option for those who deserve the highest form of punishment available. However, others argue capital punishment is a waste of resources and should be brought to an end. Therefore, while many believe the death penalty should be legalized throughout the United States because it offers a higher form of punishment, others believe the death penalty should be repealed

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Research Paper - 2560 Words

Argumentative Research Paper Final Draft ENG1121 1 Dec. 2010 Chiropractic Work: The Safe Choice â€Å"Get knowledge of the spine, for this is the requisite for many diseases.† –Hippocrates, 460-377 BC. If a Greek physician could make this statement over 2300 years ago, why is it such an under-exposed theory today? As stated in Chiropractic First, written by Dr. Rondberg, a chiropractor of 35 years and founder of the â€Å"Chiropractic Journal,† Hippocrates â€Å"believed that only nature could heal and it was the physician’s duty to remove any obstruction that would prevent the body from healing† (8-9). These â€Å"physicians† are called chiropractors today, and their goal is to remove subluxations, the displacement of two or more spinal disks that causes†¦show more content†¦This became their home as the twins survived and their bodies were studied continuously. Before their release in 1989, it was determined that sickness and disease begin with the neurological system because of their differences. Dasha got sick easily, and M asha smoked but had more resilience than her sister to colds; however, the twins shared their blood. â€Å"The question that puzzled scientists was why one sister would get the measles and the other would not, even though the germ was in both bodies,† Rondberg states (66). It was realized that the nerve system and spinal cord had a big role in the development of sickness and disease due to the fact that this was truly Masha and Dasha’s only difference. Therefore, a well-adjusted spine prevents the breeding ground for the millions of germs humans breathe in every day. It is proven that our neurological system is our defense. I admit that since getting adjusted at least once a week since September by Dr. Wurdemann that my allergies improved and I have not developed a common winter cold yet. In addition to this, I have noticed and Dr. Wurdemann pointed out is that chiropractic work will lead to less intake of common over-the-counter medicine. Things such as Ibuprofen and Aleve for pain relief will be taken less if a person has less back pain, neck pain, headaches, etc. Chiropractic work is the safer alternative to medicine and normal medical procedures because theShow MoreRelatedWhy I Write A Research Paper900 Words   |  4 Pages39C is all about research papers, I put off my plan to take my major requirement class and take 39C first. I wanted to learn how to write a proper research paper before I take other classes because one of the major assignment in the major class will be a research paper. Coming to class, I had no idea what to expect and thought we just write the same thing as Writing 39B only with more outside sources. I did not know the difference between research papers and non research papers. It turns out thatRead MoreWriting a Great Research Paper1643 Words   |  7 Pagesby Karl Weber, M.A. Writing a Great Research Paper: Picking an A+ Topic Study Guide Video Aided Instruction, Inc. Roslyn Heights, New York 1 #VAI-S1914 v1.0 This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc. For more information, call 1-800 -238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com. This study guide should be used along with the following program published by Video Aided Instruction. The instructor works through the exercisesRead MoreA Research Paper On The Quality Research906 Words   |  4 PagesThe reason this book is being reviewed is because this was one of our textbook for our book review. This book was for our class to understand how to write a research paper in higher standard. The Quality Research Papers is written by Nancy Vyhmeister has forty-five years of experience in teaching future pastors and professors throughout the world. She continues to have a global ministry in her retirement years, mostly teaching and writing. She also has authored several books, both in Spanish andRead MoreNotes On Child Vaccinations And Gender Roles, And A Research Paper1285 Words   |  6 Pageshave chosen three papers for my portfolio: paper one - Language Matters: Positives and Negatives, paper two - PEP for Vitamins and Gender Roles, and a research paper, paper f our - Child Vaccinations: Importance to a Healthy Society. I have written four papers in total, and I believe that these papers illustrate the different style of writing, and the progress I have made throughout this semester. The structure of this cover letter will display how these three particular papers address the EnglishRead MoreThe Writing A Research Paper923 Words   |  4 PagesWriting a Research Paper The research paper There will come a time in most students careers when they are assigned a research paper. Such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy. This anxiety frequently stems from the fact that many students are unfamiliar and inexperienced with this genre of writing. Never fear—inexperience and unfamiliarity are situations you can change throughRead MoreNotes On Child Vaccinations And Gender Roles, And A Research Paper1331 Words   |  6 Pagesthree papers for my portfolio: Paper One - Language Matters: Positives and Negatives, Paper Two - PEP for Vitamins and Gender Roles, and a research paper, Paper Four - Child Vaccinations: Importance to a Healthy Society. I have written four papers in total, and I believe that these papers demonstrate the different styles of writing I have learned and illustrate the progress I have made throughout this semester. The structure of thi s cover letter will display how these three particular papers addressRead MoreHow To Write A Good Research Paper1057 Words   |  5 PagesA Research Paper is a type of academic writing that needs more theoretical, significant and methodical level of question. Although a research paper is a kind of term paper, some term papers don’t require academic research. Not all research papers can be considered as term papers. An objective of writing a research paper is to allow people to read the work selectively. In order to make an impression over the reader, in other words to make a paper readable following some points should be noted: ï‚ §Read MoreThe Purpose Of An Excellent Research Paper1339 Words   |  6 PagesThe brilliant purpose of research papers is to persuade the reader using appeals. The writer presents information about a topic while using sources to provide vital details found in their research. Whether written in a popular, informal tone or a serious, formal tone, credibility of the sources is always important. There are several steps to creating an excellent research paper. A topic page must be included, followed by the research paper itself, and the sources must be included at the end in aRead MoreResearch Process and Terminology Paper1066 Words   |  5 PagesResearch Process and Terminology Paper CJA/334 Research Methods in Criminal Justice January 10, 2012 Abstract In this paper you will learn the process of research. Anyone can research but in order to research correctly, one must know the language and process. As always when researching the reason one is researching to find new information. This is when one will familiarize their self with new research terminology as well as knowledge. When one describes the research process it should contain;Read MoreResearch Critique Research Paper1710 Words   |  7 Pages Part B: Research Critique (60 marks) Article: Tuckett A Turner C 2016, ‘Do you use social media? A study into new nursing and midwifery graduates uptake of social media’, International Journal of Nursing Practice, no. 22, pp. 197–204, doi:10.1111/ijn.12411 Specific critique area Answer Explain the purpose of the study. Use the PICO or PICo format to identify the research question. (150 words) This study does not pose a clear research question, but makes a declarative question that identifies

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Debating and discussing the benefits and drawbacks Free Essays

Thematic instruction is a method of learning that is going more and more outstanding within schools across the state due to the Government ‘s instruction reappraisal and their proposed new course of study for 2011. The switch to this method of instruction is intended to assist reorganize the traditional capable countries into ‘thematic ‘ countries of acquisition, easing the force per unit areas on schools to learn purely to the course of study and give their instructors the freedom they need in order to make cross-curricular thematic lessons. This study will try to specify both thematic and cross-curricular instruction and discourse their several advantages and disadvantages. We will write a custom essay sample on Debating and discussing the benefits and drawbacks or any similar topic only for you Order Now Shoemaker ( 1989 ) states that a cross-curriculum instruction is one that is set up so that schoolroom topics overlap with one another, the method efforts to convey together legion facets of the course of study into assorted lessons to reflect the ‘real universe ‘ such that pupils can â€Å" utilize cognition learned in one context as a cognition base in other contexts † ( Collins, Brown, A ; Newman, 1989 ) . Shanahan ( 1995 ) agrees with this definition, he states that â€Å" thematic instruction is a method of forming learning about subjects or subjects doing it possible to incorporate direction across nucleus countries†¦ Thematic units are designed to promote pupils to dig deep into subjects developing both an consciousness and apprehension of bing connexions across thoughts. † The above definitions suggest that thematic and cross-curricular instruction is indispensable for kids to tie in that accomplishments learnt in one category are of import too ls for finishing undertakings within other topics in school and undertakings outside. Applebee, Langer, A ; Mullis ( 1989 ) study why the alteration to this method or instruction is necessary â€Å" while pupils are larning the basic information in nucleus capable countries, they are non larning to use their cognition efficaciously in thought and logical thinking † Marzano ( 1991 ) and Perkins ( 1991 ) construct on this ; they believe that these methods work towards turn toing some ‘recurring jobs ‘ in instruction, one in peculiar being that of stray accomplishment direction. Ofsted ‘s study ‘The Curriculum in Successful Primary Schools ‘ ( 2002 ) in which it was noted that successful schools were the 1s in which â€Å" The instructors recognised that where links are effectual they enable students to use the cognition and accomplishments learned in one topic to others. † Because cross-curricular and thematic instruction involves the linking of activities that are designed around subjects or subjects every bit good as traversing legion countries within the National Curriculum they â€Å" provide an environment that Fosters and encourages procedure acquisition and active engagement of all pupils † ( Fisher, 1991 ) , this would therefore aid instructor turn to the different acquisition manners of students within their schoolrooms. A claim that Komorowska ( 2001 ) backs up, saying that because â€Å" teaching kids is non systematic, the methods and techniques chosen by the instructor are of a higher significance than their consequences. † With respects to the diverse acquisition manners that kids have, experts have identified three ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.time4learning.com/learning-styles.shtml ) : Auditory scholars remember by speaking out loud, like to hold things explained orally and may hold problem with written instructions. Auditory scholars may speak to themselves when larning something new. Ocular scholars easy retrieve ocular inside informations and prefer to see what they are larning. They prefer to compose down instructions and may hold problem following talks. This type of scholar enjoys art and drawing ; reads maps, charts and diagrams good ; fascinated with machines and innovations ; dramas with Lego ; likes labyrinths and mystifiers. Kinesthetic scholars prefer activities that allow them to make what they are larning about. Haptic scholars like to touch things in order to larn about them and wish to travel around when speaking or listening. Shows you instead than Tells you. Through the usage of thematic and transverse curricular instruction, schoolroom instructors are able to provide for these three distinct groups of scholars and, hence, make an ambiance in which each group remains interested in the lesson therefore battling any ennui and increasing the students ‘ potency for larning. Former Secretary of State for Education and Skills, Charles Clarke, wrote in the Excellence and Enjoyment Strategy ( 2004 ) , â€Å" What makes good primary instruction great is the merger of excellence and enjoyment. Children learn better when they are excited and engaged – but what excites them and engages them best is genuinely first-class instruction, which challenges them and shows them what they can make. † Which falls in line with Larsen-Freeman ‘s statement ( 2000 ) that larning becomes even more effectual due to it being â€Å" facilitated in a cheerful environment † , and Resnick ‘s ( 1989 ) claim that this method increases students ‘ motive for larning and their degree of battle because they can see the value of what they are being taught and become more actively engaged in the lesson as opposed to the isolated accomplishment larning that other methods offer. It is, nevertheless, of import to see general larning features every bit good as the antecedently mentioned groups of features and how these are successfully manipulated through the usage of these methods. Thaiss ( 1986 ) , Krogh ( 1990 ) and Jacobs ( 1989 ) all write that kids that are able to utilize fact-finding accomplishments to research what they are larning, and interact with other members of their acquisition community, whether that ‘s other students, instructors or schoolroom helpers, really learn more than those kids that are non encouraged to inquire inquiries and portion sentiments with other scholars. Vygotsky ( 1962 ) gives us an account as to why this technique is successful. He pointed out that kids who have different accomplishments, learn from each other. This is because through the encouragement of probe, oppugning and working together, students are given the chance to see undertakings from the point of position of others. Finally, the humanistic attack in learning emphasises the importance of single and typical features of a human being and the desire for fulfillment. In instruction it means student-oriented learning instead than teacher-oriented one Biskup ( 1990 ) . Fisher et Al says, â€Å" what promotes creativeness is a oppugning schoolroom, where instructors and students ask unusual and ambitious inquiries ; where new connexions are made ; where thoughts are represented in different ways- visually, physically and verbally ; where there are fresh attacks and solutions to jobs ; and where the effects of thoughts and actions are critically evaluated. † In a humanistic schoolroom, such as the 1 that uses thematic and cross-curricular methods, the instructor is non merely a protagonist and assistant but besides a scholar. This is because the work is based on subjects that the instructor may non be used to, it brings the instructor down to the same degree of the kid and the student about takes charge in look intoing by inquiring inquiries. The instructor ‘s chief function is to make an ambiance in which scholars feel relaxed and do non hold any suppressions therefore scholars ‘ endowments are exploited during the learning procedure. Of class, whilst there are legion benefits to utilizing these methods, there are besides a figure of drawbacks which must be considered. David Hart, former general secretary of the National Association of Head Teachers, â€Å" Theme-based instruction will disfavor students in the passage to secondary. And it will do the secondary instructor ‘s undertaking much more hard. † This is to state that even though there may be benefits to learning like this within a primary schoolroom, students heading from a mostly thematic based manner of learning could perchance happen that the generic manner of learning within secondary instruction i.e. topic-based acquisition, hard to set to. Thus disfavoring the student ‘s learning experience, compared to schoolmates who are used to this type of instruction. Further drawbacks of the methods include the demand for ongoing coaction between instructors and planning, as the subjects must be carefully and thought through in order for them to be meaningful and do sense within the course of study. Chris Woodhead, states in his study of 1992 that, â€Å" It ‘s harder for instructors to construction a consistent proviso in the topics that are deserving analyzing if they ‘re seeking to build links between these topics every bit good. † The excess work that Woodhead remarks on is necessary for the success of the methods because the intertwining of the course of study within that one subject, as stated earlier, may be hard and would necessitate a batch of planning and coaction with other members of staff, and without this excess work from the instructors it is possible that some content that could be covered may be missed. Finally, with respects to planning, the resources available to instructors within a school could besides be a possible obstruction for the two methods. For illustration a school may non hold sufficient ICT resources for all twelvemonth groups to utilize in order to develop these accomplishments during literacy or numeracy lessons. There is besides the possibility that within these Sessionss that some students get confused and lose sight of the chief constructs of the activity or lesson. This could be down to hapless planning and administration of the instructor or due to the student being over-stimulated with the many different activities in gesture within the lesson, therefore, ensuing in the student being ‘spread thinly ‘ across the lesson, go forthing attempts for larning uneffective. The cross-curricula and thematic methods of instruction can be good to instructors and pupils, as discussed antecedently they allow kids to larn in a manner that is most natural to them. As Scott and Ytreberg ( 1990 ) province: â€Å" some kids develop early, some later. Some kids develop bit by bit, others in springs and bounds. It is non possible that at the age of five all kids can make x, at the age of seven they can all make Ys, or that at the age of 10 they can all make z.. † This is to state that kids are all different human existences larning things at different rates. These methods allow all students to pick up the intended acquisition aims and ends through this fact-finding procedure, it ‘s through this procedure that the students become more responsible and engaged in their ain acquisition. In consequence this ‘levels the playing field ‘ leting the students to successfully finish the acquisition aim in their ain manner and within the intended perio d of clip. However, it would be prudent to take to these methods with cautiousness as the drawbacks discussed do look to hold footing such as How to cite Debating and discussing the benefits and drawbacks, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Teens Getting Birth Control Without Parental Consent Sample Essay Example For Students

Teens Getting Birth Control Without Parental Consent Sample Essay Presently Adolescents are seeking to turn up excessively rapidly. They want to be merely like the Television characters they idolize and will alter themselves to make so. There are shows on Television like â€Å"16 and pregnant† that fundamentally insinuate ; if you have sex and acquire pregnant so you will acquire paid to be on telecasting. Most teens do non travel to their parents for birth control because they are afraid. In general adolescents do non desire their parents cognizing they are holding sex. Having entree to deliver control. with or without the parents permission. can be a touchy topic. With this point. acquiring birth control without parental consent is a problematic subject. In my sentiment I think you shouldn’t be able to acquire birth control. unless you have your parent or legal defender at that place. In the United States. each province varies whether or non bush leagues may acquire prophylactic prescriptions from a wellness attention professional. â€Å"Twenty-one provinces explicitly allow all bush leagues to accept to contraceptive services without parental permission. † ( Minors Access to Contraceptive Services ) In Arizona presently. the jurisprudence states that there are no limitations on bush leagues. on whether or non a parent has to be involved with prophylactic usage. Planned Parenthood is an bureau that protects your individuality. Some good things about Planned Parenthood are that. you do non hold to hold wellness insurance to be treated. By jurisprudence they are non allowed to give out names. or the ground you were seen to anyone. That is why most people go to Planned Parenthood. One down side is that it can be a small pricier because most patients do non hold wellness insurance. Another would be that they don’t needfully care which type of birth control you are acquiring because they are acquiring paid irrespective. if it makes you ill or non. There are many different methods of birth control. The most obvious is abstention ; this protects against all STD’s and assures you that you will non acquire pregnant. The birth control changeable otherwise known as ( Depo-Provera ) is an injection of a endocrine that prevents gestation. Each shooting prevents gestation for three months. The shooting can be taken in the butt. arm or thigh ( Birth command methods ) . Of class there are enough more methods but the most popular signifier of birth control would be the pill. It is an unwritten drug that must be taken by oral cavity one time every twenty-four hours. Most people would reason that being able to purchase birth control as a adolescent would be good because adolescent gestations would drop. However this does non vouch teenage gestations will drop. If even one pill is forgotten or lost the effectivity of the pills decrease vastly. This is why holding a parent to possibly remind you might be a good thing. â€Å"Statistics show merely 35 % of adolescents use rubbers even though they have entree to them. † ( Minors Access to Contraceptive Services ) The job is that rubbers can besides be uneffective due to teens utilizing them improperly or merely non utilizing them at all. A secondary signifier is ever a good excess step in most instances. To forestall adolescent gestations and the spread of STD’s the pattern of safe sex is a necessity. Condoms will protect you from STDs better than non utilizing one at all. STDs affect more teens than teenage gestations. If safe sex is non practiced. certain signifiers of STD’s can subsequently do more terrible jobs like malignant neoplastic disease or even HIV. The most common instance from HPV is cervical malignant neoplastic disease to misss ( Cervical Cancer Soars in Young: Rise in Unprotected Sex Sees Cases Soar. ) If immature females had a parent at that place to acknowledge these jobs with them these statistics may drop in non lone gestations. but STDs and possibly malignant neoplastic disease every bit good. .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 , .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .postImageUrl , .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 , .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8:hover , .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8:visited , .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8:active { border:0!important; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8:active , .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8 .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6ab7fa0db4392ec7369da4dd0d2ea2b8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Surviving the lastest recession of Sept 11 EssayYaz. is a birth control that is used by 1000000s of adult females and is still on the market today. Yaz was linked to holding awful side effects. Some side effects included. sightlessness. shots. and in some instances malignant neoplastic disease ( Michael D. Benson ) . This is merely one of tonss of birth control brands that are out at that place. Having a parent at that place to cognize the facts about these things might be good so you don’t utilize the incorrect sort and stop up paying for it. Geting birth control without your parents’ consent in my sentiment should non be allowed. I can understand why people may non desire to state a parent but they do desire to be involved. If your kid is being responsible plenty to travel and acquire birth control so they might be responsible plenty to utilize it. Often if non given the chance to do responsible picks. teens can take affairs into their ain custodies and either do what they want. or do bad picks. The inquiry is. what is the â€Å"right† reply? Parents and society battle with this inquiry every twenty-four hours. Although abstention is the right reply and easiest response. that doesn’t mean that this is the most realistic. Teenss struggle with many force per unit areas covering with issues that make them turn up excessively shortly. Many of these picks can impact their lives everlastingly. Is education plenty? Should parents do certain that they are a portion of these life changing determinations or wo uld they prefer that the determination be made for them by the provinces of federal authorities? You are officially an grownup one time you reach the age of 18 ; this means you can take attention of yourself. I believe that you should hold your parents consent for acquiring birth control until you are at least an grownup. Plants Cited â€Å"Birth control methods. † Planned Parenthood. 2012. lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. plannedparenthood. org/health- topics/birth-control-4211. htm gt ; . â€Å"Cervical Cancer Soars in Young: Rise in Unprotected Sex Sees Cases Soar. † Mail Online. N. p. . n. d. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. dailymail. co. uk/health/article-2057816/Cervical-cancer-soars-young-Rise-unprotected-sex-sees-cases-soar. hypertext markup language gt ; . â€Å"Minors Access to Contraceptive Services. † State Policies in Brief. AGI. Dec 1. 2005. â€Å"Coping with Birth Control† by Michael D. Benson. M. D. ( Rosen Publishing Group. 1998 ) . Precise birth control information so teens can do intelligent determinations.

Monday, March 30, 2020

Diffusion of Innovations Essay Example

Diffusion of Innovations Essay The diffusion of innovations according to Rogers. With successive groups of consumers adopting the new technology (shown in blue), its market share (yellow) will eventually reach the saturation level. In mathematics the S curve is known as the logistic function. Diffusion of Innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures. Everett Rogers, a professor of rural sociology, popularized the theory in his 1962 book Diffusion of Innovations.He said diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory are varied and span multiple disciplines. Rogers (1962) espoused the theory that there are four main elements that influence the spread of a new idea: the innovation, communication channels, time, and a social system. This process relies heavily on human capital. The innovation must be wid ely adopted in order to self-sustain. Within the rate of adoption, there is a point at which an innovation reaches critical mass.The categories of adopters are: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards (Rogers 1962, p. 150). Diffusion of Innovations manifests itself in different ways in various cultures and fields and is highly subject to the type of adopters and innovation-decision process. The concept of diffusion was first studied by the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1890) and by German and Austrian anthropologists such as Friedrich Ratzel and Leo Frobenius. [1] Its basic epidemiological or internal-influence form was formulated by H.Earl Pemberton,[2] who provided examples of institutional diffusion such as postage stamps and standardized school ethic codes. In 1962 Everett Rogers, a professor of rural sociology published his work:Diffusion of Innovations. In this seminal piece, Rogers synthesized research from over 508 diffusion studies and pr oduced a theory applied to the adoption of innovations among individuals and organizations. Rogers work asserts that 4 main elements influence the spread of a new idea: the innovation, communication channels, time, and a social system. These elements work in onjunction with one another: diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. Rogers adds that central to this theory is process. Individuals experience 5 stages of accepting a new innovation: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. If the innovation is adopted, it spreads via various communication channels. During communication, the idea is rarely evaluated from a scientific standpoint; rather, subjective perceptions of the innovation influence diffusion.The process occurs over time. Finally, social systems determine diffusion, norms on diffusion, roles of opinion leaders and change agents, types of innovation deci sions, and innovation consequences. To use Rogers’ model in health requires us to assume that the innovation in classical diffusion theory is equivalent to scientific research findings in the context of practice, an assumption that has not been rigorously tested. How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? Greenhalgh et al. evaluate an evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations. [3] The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory are varied and span across multiple disciplines. Rogers identifies six main traditions that impacted diffusion research: anthropology, early sociology, rural sociology, education, industrial sociology, and medical sociology. The diffusion of innovation theory has been largely influenced by the work of rural sociologists. [4] In 1971, Rogers published a follow-up work: Communication of Innovations; A Cross-Cultural Approach. uilding on his original the ory on the diffusion process by evaluating social systems. This extension aimed to add value to Roger’s 1962 touchstone work (Rogers ;amp; Shoemaker, 1971). Elements[edit source  | editbeta] The key elements in diffusion research are: Element| Definition| Innovation| Rogers defines an innovation as an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. [5]| Communication channels| A communication channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to another. 6]| Time| The innovation-decision period is the length of time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. [7] Rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system. [8]| Social system| A social system is defined as a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal. [9]| Decisions[edit source  | editbeta] Two factors determine what type a particular dec ision is: * Whether the decision is made freely and implemented voluntarily, * Who makes the decision.Based on these considerations, three types of innovation-decisions have been identified within diffusion of innovations. Type| Definition| Optional Innovation-Decision| This decision is made by an individual who is in some way distinguished from others in a social system. | Collective Innovation-Decision| This decision is made collectively by all individuals of a social system. | Authority Innovation-Decision| This decision is made for the entire social system by few individuals in positions of influence or power. | Process[edit source  | editbeta]Diffusion of an innovation occurs through a five–step process. This process is a type of decision-making. It occurs through a series of communication channels over a period of time among the members of a similar social system. Ryan and Gross first indicated the identification of adoption as a process in 1943 (Rogers 1962, p. 79). Rogers five stages (steps): awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption are integral to this theory. An individual might reject an innovation at any time during or after the adoption process.Scholars such as Abrahamson (1991) examine this process critically by posing questions such as: How do technically inefficient innovations diffuse and what impedes technically efficient innovations from catching on? Abrahamson makes suggestions for how organizational scientists can more comprehensively evaluate the spread of innovations. [10] In later editions of the Diffusion of Innovations Rogers changes the terminology of the five stages to: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. However the descriptions of the categories have remained similar throughout the editions.Five stages of the adoption process| Stage| Definition| Knowledge| In this stage the individual is first exposed to an innovation but lacks information about the innovation. During this stage of the process the individual has not been inspired to find more information about the innovation. | Persuasion| In this stage the individual is interested in the innovation and actively seeks information/detail about the innovation. | Decision| In this stage the individual takes the concept of the change and weighs the advantages/disadvantages of using the innovation and decides whether to adopt or reject the innovation.Due to the individualistic nature of this stage Rogers notes that it is the most difficult stage to acquire empirical evidence (Rogers 1964, p. 83). | Implementation| In this stage the individual employs the innovation to a varying degree depending on the situation. During this stage the individual determines the usefulness of the innovation and may search for further information about it. | Confirmation| In this stage the individual finalizes his/her decision to continue using the innovation. This stage is both intrapersonal (may cause cognitive dissonance) and int erpersonal, confirmation the group has made the right decision. Rate of Adoption[edit source  | editbeta] The rate of adoption is defined as the relative speed in which members of a social system adopt an innovation. Rate is usually measured by the length of time required for a certain percentage of the members of a social system to adopt an innovation (Rogers 1962, p. 134). The rates of adoption for innovations are determined by an individual’s adopter category. In general, individuals who first adopt an innovation require a shorter adoption period (adoption process) when compared to late adopters.Within the rate of adoption, there is a point at which an innovation reaches critical mass. This is a point in time within the adoption curve that the amount of individuals adopters ensure that continued adoption of the innovation is self-sustaining. Illustrating how an innovation reaches critical mass, Rogers outlines several strategies in order to help an innovation reach this stage. Strategies to propel diffusion include: when an innovation adopted by a highly respected individual within a social network, creating an instinctive desire for a specific innovation.Also, injecting an innovation into a group of individuals who would readily use said technology, and provide positive reactions and benefits for early adopters of an innovation. Difference Between Diffusion and Adoption[edit source  | editbeta] Adoption is an individual process detailing the series of stages one undergoes from first hearing about a product to finally adopting it. The diffusion process, however, signifies a group of phenomena, which suggests how an innovation spreads among consumers. Overall, the diffusion process essentially encompasses the adoption process of several individuals over time.Adopter categories[edit source  | editbeta] Rogers defines an adopter category as a classification of individuals within a social system on the basis of innovativeness. In the book Diffusion of Innovations, Rogers suggests a total of five categories of adopters in order to standardize the usage of adopter categories in diffusion research. The adoption of an innovation follows an S curve when plotted over a length of time. [11] The categories of adopters are: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards (Rogers 1962, p. 50) In addition to the gatekeepers and opinion leaders who exist within a given community, there are change agents from outside the community. Change agents essentially bring innovations to new communities– ? rst through the gatekeepers, then through the opinion leaders, and so on through the community. Adopter category| Definition| Innovators| Innovators are the first individuals to adopt an innovation. Innovators are willing to take risks, youngest in age, have the highest social class, have great financial liquidity, are very social and have closest contact to scientific sources and interaction with other innovators.R isk tolerance has them adopting technologies which may ultimately fail. Financial resources help absorb these failures. (Rogers 1962 5th ed, p. 282)| Early adopters| This is the second fastest category of individuals who adopt an innovation. These individuals have the highest degree of opinion leadership among the other adopter categories. Early adopters are typically younger in age, have a higher social status, have more financial lucidity, advanced education, and are more socially forward than late adopters.More discrete in adoption choices than innovators. Realize judicious choice of adoption will help them maintain central communication position (Rogers 1962 5th ed, p. 283). | Early Majority| Individuals in this category adopt an innovation after a varying degree of time. This time of adoption is significantly longer than the innovators and early adopters. Early Majority tend to be slower in the adoption process, have above average social status, contact with early adopters, and seldom hold positions of opinion leadership in a system (Rogers 1962 5th ed, p. 83)| Late Majority| Individuals in this category will adopt an innovation after the average member of the society. These individuals approach an innovation with a high degree of skepticism and after the majority of society has adopted the innovation. Late Majority are typically skeptical about an innovation, have below average social status, very little financial lucidity, in contact with others in late majority and early majority, very little opinion leadership. | Laggards| Individuals in this category are the last to adopt an innovation.Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals in this category show little to no opinion leadership. These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents and tend to be advanced in age. Laggards typically tend to be focused on traditions, likely to have lowest social status, lowest financial fluidity, be oldest of all other adopters, in contact with only family and close friends. | Rogers’ 5 Factors[edit source  | editbeta] Rogers defines several intrinsic characteristics of innovations that influence an individual’s decision to adopt or reject an innovation.Factor| Definition| Relative Advantage| How improved an innovation is over the previous generation. | Compatibility| The level of compatibility that an innovation has to be assimilated into an individual’s life. | Complexity or Simplicity| If the innovation is perceived as complicated or difficult to use, an individual is unlikely to adopt it. | Trialability| How easily an innovation may be experimented. If a user is able to test an innovation, the individual will be more likely to adopt it. | Observability| The extent that an innovation is visible to others.An innovation that is more visible will drive communication among the individual’s peers and personal networks and will in turn create more positive or negative reactions. | Failed Diffusion[ed it source  | editbeta] Rogers, in his Diffusion of Innovation writings, discussed a situation in Peru involving the implementation of water boiling to obtain higher health and wellness levels of the individuals living within the village of Los Molinas. The residents of the village have no knowledge of the link between particular sanitation and reduced levels of illness.The campaign was working with the villagers to try and teach them how to boil their water to make it healthier for consumption, as well as to burn their garbage, install working latrines, and report cases of illness to local health agencies. In Los Molinas, a stigma is linked to boiled water as being something that only the unwell consume, and thus, the idea of healthy residents boiling their water prior to consumption was frowned upon, and those who did so wouldnt be accepted by their society.Thus, the two-year campaign to help bring more sanitary ways of living to this village was considered to be largely unsucces sful. Much of the reason for the lack of success is because the social norms and standards of acceptance into society greatly outweighed the idea of taking on this innovation, even at the sake of the health, well-being, and greater levels of education to the villagers. This failure better exemplified the importance of the roles of the interpersonal communication channels that are involved in such a health-related campaign for social change.Burt, R. S. (1973) also looked at the process of diffusion in El Salvador and asks: Is there a differential influence exercised by social integration on participation in the diffusion process and is such influence, significant above that exerted by other important diffusion relevant variables? [12] Heterophily and communication channels[edit source  | editbeta] Lazarsfeld and Merton first called attention to the principles of homophily and its opposite, heterophily. 13] Using their definition, Rogers defines homophily as the degree to which pair s of individuals who interact are similar in certain attributes, such as beliefs, education, social status, and the like. [13] When given the choice, individuals usually choose to interact with someone similar to him or herself. [14] Furthermore, homophilous individuals engage in more effective communication because their similarities lead to greater knowledge gain as well as attitude or behavior change. 14] However, most participants in the diffusion of innovations are heterophilous, meaning they speak different languages, so to speak. [14] The problem is that diffusion requires a certain degree of heterophily; if two individuals are identical, no diffusion occurs because no new information can be exchanged. [14] Therefore, an ideal situation would involve two individuals who are homophilous in every way, except in knowledge of the innovation. [14] The Role of Social Systems[edit source  | editbeta] Opinion Leaders[edit source  | editbeta]Throughout the diffusion process there is evidence that not all individuals exert an equal amount of influence over all individuals. In this sense there are Opinion Leaders, leaders who are influential in spreading either positive or negative information about an innovation. Rogers relies on the ideas of Katz amp; Lazarsfeld and the two-step flow theory in developing his ideas on the influence of Opinion Leaders in the diffusion process. [15] Opinion Leaders have the most influence during the evaluation stage of the innovation-decision process and late adopters (Rogers 1964, p. 19). In addition opinion leaders have a set of characteristics that set them apart from their followers and other individuals. Opinion Leaders typically have greater exposure to the mass media, more cosmopolitan, greater contact with change agents, more social experience and exposure, higher socioeconomic status, and are more innovative. Research was done in the early 1950s at the University of Chicago attempting to assess the cost-effectiveness o f broadcast advertising on the diffusion of new products and services. 16] The findings were that opinion leadership tended to be organized into a hierarchy within a society, with each level in the hierarchy having most influence over other members in the same level, and on those in the next level below it. The lowest levels were generally larger in numbers, and tended to coincide with various demographic attributes that might be targeted by mass advertising. However, it found that direct word of mouth and example were far more influential than broadcast messages, which were only effective if they reinforced the direct influences.This led to the conclusion that advertising was best targeted, if possible, on those next in line to adopt, and not on those not yet reached by the chain of influence. It can be a waste of money to market to those not yet ready to buy. Other research relating the concept to public choice theory finds that the hierarchy of influence for innovations need not, and likely does not, coincide with hierarchies of official, political, or economic status. [17] Elites are often not innovators, and innovations may have to be introduced by outsiders and propagated up a hierarchy to the top decision makers.Electronic communication social networks[edit source  | editbeta] Prior to the introduction of the Internet, it was argued that social networks had a crucial role in the diffusion of innovation particularly tacit knowledge in the book The IRG Solution hierarchical incompetence and how to overcome it. The book argued that the widespread adoption of computer networks of individuals would lead to the much better diffusion of innovations, and with greater understanding of their possible shortcomings, and the identification of needed innovations that would not have otherwise occurred the Relevance paradox.The social model proposed by Ryan and Gross (1943) (Rogers 1962, p. 79) is expanded by Valente (1996)[18] who uses social networks as a basis f or adopter categorization instead of solely relying on the system-level analysis used by Ryan and Gross. Valente also looks at an individuals personal network, which is a different application than the organizational perspective espoused by many other scholars. [18] Organizations[edit source  | editbeta] Innovations are often adopted by organizations through two types of innovation-decisions: collective innovation decisions and authority innovation decisions.The collective innovation decision occurs when the adoption of an innovation has been made by a consensus among the members of an organization. The authority-innovation decision occurs when the adoption of an innovation has been made by very few individuals with high positions of power within an organization (Rogers 2005, p. 403). Unlike the optional innovation decision process, these innovation-decision processes only occur within an organization or hierarchical group.Within the innovation decision process in an organization there are certain individuals termed champions who stand behind an innovation and break through any opposition that the innovation may have caused. The champion within the diffusion of innovation theory plays a very similar role as to the champion used within the efficiency business model Six Sigma. The innovation process within an organization contains five stages that are slightly similar to the innovation-decision process that individuals undertake.These stages are: agenda-setting, matching, redefining/restructuring, clarifying, routinizing. Policy Diffusion[edit source  | editbeta] The theories of diffusion have spread beyond the original applied fields. In the case of political science and administration, policy diffusion focuses on how institutional innovations are adopted by other institutions, at the local, state or country level. An alternative term is policy transfer where the focus is more on the agents of diffusion such as in the work of Diane Stone.The first interests with regards to policy diffusion were focused in the variation over time (Berry ;amp; Berry 1990[19] or [1], state lottery adoption) but more recently the interest has shifted towards mechanisms (emulation, learning, coercion, as in Simmons ;amp; Elkins (2004)[20] or Gilardi (2010)[21] or in channels of diffusion (as in Jordana, Levi-Faur and Fernandez-i-Marin (2011)[22]), where the authors find that the creation of regulatory agencies is transmitted by country and sector channels).Diffusion of New Technology[edit source  | editbeta] Peres, Muller and Mahajan (2010) suggest that Innovation diffusion of a new technology is the process of the market penetration of new products and services that is driven by social in? uences, which include all interdependencies among consumers that affect various market players with or without their explicit knowledge. [23] Eveland (1986) evaluated diffusion of innovations from a strictly phenomenological view, which is very different than the othe r perspectives I found.He asserts that, â€Å"Technology is information, and exists only to the degree that people can put it into practice and use it to achieve values†[24] Diffusion of existing technologies has been measured in S curves. These technologies include radio, television, VCR, cable, flush toilet, clothes washer, refrigerator, home ownership, air conditioning, dishwasher, electrified households, telephone, cordless phone, cellular phone, per capita airline miles, personal computer and the Internet. This data[25] can be assessed as a valuable predictor for future innovations. Diffusion curves forInfrastructures[26] This data reveals stunning contrast in the diffusion process of personal technologies versus infrastructure. Consequences of adoption[edit source  | editbeta] There are both positive and negative outcomes when an individual or organization chooses to adopt a particular innovation. Rogers states that this is an area that needs further research because of the biased positive attitude that is associated with the adoption of an innovation (Rogers 2005, p. 470). In the Diffusion of Innovation, Rogers lists three categories for consequences: desirable vs. ndesirable, direct vs. indirect, and anticipated vs. unanticipated. In her article, Integrating Models of Diffusion of Innovations, Barbara Wejnert details two categories for consequences: public vs. private and benefits vs. costs. [27] Public vs. Private[edit source  | editbeta] Public consequences refer to the impact of an innovation on those other than the actor, while private consequences refer to the impact on the actor itself. [27] Public consequences usually involve collective actors, such as countries, states, organizations, or social movements. 27] The results are usually concerned with issues of societal well-being. [27] Private consequences usually involve individuals or small collective entities, such as a community. [27] The innovations are usually concerned with the i mprovement of quality of life or the reform of organizational or social structures. [27] Benefits vs. Costs[edit source  | editbeta] The benefits of an innovation obviously refer to the positive consequences, while the costs refer to the negative. [28] Costs may be monetary or nonmonetary, direct or indirect. 28] Direct costs are usually related to financial uncertainty and the economic state of the actor. [28] Indirect costs are more difficult to identify. [28] An example would be the need to buy a new kind of fertilizer to use innovative seeds. [28] Indirect costs may also be social, such as social conflict caused by innovation [28] Marketers are particularly interested in the diffusion process as it determines the success or failure of a new product. It is quite important for a marketer to understand the diffusion process so as to ensure proper management of the spread of a new product or service.Mathematical treatment[edit source  | editbeta] Main article: Logistic function The diffusion of an innovation typically follows an S shaped curve which often resembles a logistic function. Mathematical programming models such as the S-D model apply the diffusion of innovations theory to real data problems. [29] International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)[edit source  | editbeta] Several papers on the relationship between technology and the economy have been written by researchers at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).The pertinent papers deal with energy substitution and the role of work in the economy as well as with the long economic cycle. Using the logistic function, these researchers were able to provide new insight into market penetration, saturation and forecasting the diffusion of various innovations, infrastructures and energy source substitutions. [30] Cesare Marchetti published on Kondretiev waves and on diffusion of innovations. [31] Grubler (1990) presents a mathematical discussion of diffusion and substition models. 32] Criticism[edit source  | editbeta] Much of the evidence for the diffusion of innovations gathered by Rogers comes from agricultural methods and medical practice. Various computer models have been developed in order to simulate the diffusion of innovations. Veneris developed a systems dynamics computer model which takes into account various diffusion patterns modeled via differential equations. [33][34] There are a number of criticisms of the model which make it less than useful for managers.First, technologies are not static. There is continual innovation in order to attract new adopters all along the S-curve. The S-curve does not just happen. Instead, the s-curve can be seen as being made up of a series of bell curves of different sections of a population adopting different versions of a generic innovation. Rogers has placed the contributions and criticisms of diffusion research into four categories: pro-innovation bias, individual-blame bias, recall proble m, and issues of equality. 35] One of the cons of the Diffusion of Innovation approach is that the communication process involved is a one-way flow of information. The sender of the message has a goal to persuade the receiver, and there is little to no dialogue. The person implementing the change controls the direction and outcome of the campaign. In some cases, this is the best approach, but other cases require a more participatory approach. Diffusion of Innovations Essay Example Diffusion of Innovations Essay The diffusion of innovations according to Rogers. With successive groups of consumers adopting the new technology (shown in blue), its market share (yellow) will eventually reach the saturation level. In mathematics the S curve is known as the logistic function. Diffusion of Innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures. Everett Rogers, a professor of rural sociology, popularized the theory in his 1962 book Diffusion of Innovations.He said diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory are varied and span multiple disciplines. Rogers (1962) espoused the theory that there are four main elements that influence the spread of a new idea: the innovation, communication channels, time, and a social system. This process relies heavily on human capital. The innovation must be wid ely adopted in order to self-sustain. Within the rate of adoption, there is a point at which an innovation reaches critical mass.The categories of adopters are: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards (Rogers 1962, p. 150). Diffusion of Innovations manifests itself in different ways in various cultures and fields and is highly subject to the type of adopters and innovation-decision process. The concept of diffusion was first studied by the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1890) and by German and Austrian anthropologists such as Friedrich Ratzel and Leo Frobenius. [1] Its basic epidemiological or internal-influence form was formulated by H.Earl Pemberton,[2] who provided examples of institutional diffusion such as postage stamps and standardized school ethic codes. In 1962 Everett Rogers, a professor of rural sociology published his work:Diffusion of Innovations. In this seminal piece, Rogers synthesized research from over 508 diffusion studies and pr oduced a theory applied to the adoption of innovations among individuals and organizations. Rogers work asserts that 4 main elements influence the spread of a new idea: the innovation, communication channels, time, and a social system. These elements work in onjunction with one another: diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. Rogers adds that central to this theory is process. Individuals experience 5 stages of accepting a new innovation: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. If the innovation is adopted, it spreads via various communication channels. During communication, the idea is rarely evaluated from a scientific standpoint; rather, subjective perceptions of the innovation influence diffusion.The process occurs over time. Finally, social systems determine diffusion, norms on diffusion, roles of opinion leaders and change agents, types of innovation deci sions, and innovation consequences. To use Rogers’ model in health requires us to assume that the innovation in classical diffusion theory is equivalent to scientific research findings in the context of practice, an assumption that has not been rigorously tested. How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? Greenhalgh et al. evaluate an evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations. [3] The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory are varied and span across multiple disciplines. Rogers identifies six main traditions that impacted diffusion research: anthropology, early sociology, rural sociology, education, industrial sociology, and medical sociology. The diffusion of innovation theory has been largely influenced by the work of rural sociologists. [4] In 1971, Rogers published a follow-up work: Communication of Innovations; A Cross-Cultural Approach. uilding on his original the ory on the diffusion process by evaluating social systems. This extension aimed to add value to Roger’s 1962 touchstone work (Rogers ;amp; Shoemaker, 1971). Elements[edit source  | editbeta] The key elements in diffusion research are: Element| Definition| Innovation| Rogers defines an innovation as an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. [5]| Communication channels| A communication channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to another. 6]| Time| The innovation-decision period is the length of time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. [7] Rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system. [8]| Social system| A social system is defined as a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal. [9]| Decisions[edit source  | editbeta] Two factors determine what type a particular dec ision is: * Whether the decision is made freely and implemented voluntarily, * Who makes the decision.Based on these considerations, three types of innovation-decisions have been identified within diffusion of innovations. Type| Definition| Optional Innovation-Decision| This decision is made by an individual who is in some way distinguished from others in a social system. | Collective Innovation-Decision| This decision is made collectively by all individuals of a social system. | Authority Innovation-Decision| This decision is made for the entire social system by few individuals in positions of influence or power. | Process[edit source  | editbeta]Diffusion of an innovation occurs through a five–step process. This process is a type of decision-making. It occurs through a series of communication channels over a period of time among the members of a similar social system. Ryan and Gross first indicated the identification of adoption as a process in 1943 (Rogers 1962, p. 79). Rogers five stages (steps): awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption are integral to this theory. An individual might reject an innovation at any time during or after the adoption process.Scholars such as Abrahamson (1991) examine this process critically by posing questions such as: How do technically inefficient innovations diffuse and what impedes technically efficient innovations from catching on? Abrahamson makes suggestions for how organizational scientists can more comprehensively evaluate the spread of innovations. [10] In later editions of the Diffusion of Innovations Rogers changes the terminology of the five stages to: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. However the descriptions of the categories have remained similar throughout the editions.Five stages of the adoption process| Stage| Definition| Knowledge| In this stage the individual is first exposed to an innovation but lacks information about the innovation. During this stage of the process the individual has not been inspired to find more information about the innovation. | Persuasion| In this stage the individual is interested in the innovation and actively seeks information/detail about the innovation. | Decision| In this stage the individual takes the concept of the change and weighs the advantages/disadvantages of using the innovation and decides whether to adopt or reject the innovation.Due to the individualistic nature of this stage Rogers notes that it is the most difficult stage to acquire empirical evidence (Rogers 1964, p. 83). | Implementation| In this stage the individual employs the innovation to a varying degree depending on the situation. During this stage the individual determines the usefulness of the innovation and may search for further information about it. | Confirmation| In this stage the individual finalizes his/her decision to continue using the innovation. This stage is both intrapersonal (may cause cognitive dissonance) and int erpersonal, confirmation the group has made the right decision. Rate of Adoption[edit source  | editbeta] The rate of adoption is defined as the relative speed in which members of a social system adopt an innovation. Rate is usually measured by the length of time required for a certain percentage of the members of a social system to adopt an innovation (Rogers 1962, p. 134). The rates of adoption for innovations are determined by an individual’s adopter category. In general, individuals who first adopt an innovation require a shorter adoption period (adoption process) when compared to late adopters.Within the rate of adoption, there is a point at which an innovation reaches critical mass. This is a point in time within the adoption curve that the amount of individuals adopters ensure that continued adoption of the innovation is self-sustaining. Illustrating how an innovation reaches critical mass, Rogers outlines several strategies in order to help an innovation reach this stage. Strategies to propel diffusion include: when an innovation adopted by a highly respected individual within a social network, creating an instinctive desire for a specific innovation.Also, injecting an innovation into a group of individuals who would readily use said technology, and provide positive reactions and benefits for early adopters of an innovation. Difference Between Diffusion and Adoption[edit source  | editbeta] Adoption is an individual process detailing the series of stages one undergoes from first hearing about a product to finally adopting it. The diffusion process, however, signifies a group of phenomena, which suggests how an innovation spreads among consumers. Overall, the diffusion process essentially encompasses the adoption process of several individuals over time.Adopter categories[edit source  | editbeta] Rogers defines an adopter category as a classification of individuals within a social system on the basis of innovativeness. In the book Diffusion of Innovations, Rogers suggests a total of five categories of adopters in order to standardize the usage of adopter categories in diffusion research. The adoption of an innovation follows an S curve when plotted over a length of time. [11] The categories of adopters are: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards (Rogers 1962, p. 50) In addition to the gatekeepers and opinion leaders who exist within a given community, there are change agents from outside the community. Change agents essentially bring innovations to new communities– ? rst through the gatekeepers, then through the opinion leaders, and so on through the community. Adopter category| Definition| Innovators| Innovators are the first individuals to adopt an innovation. Innovators are willing to take risks, youngest in age, have the highest social class, have great financial liquidity, are very social and have closest contact to scientific sources and interaction with other innovators.R isk tolerance has them adopting technologies which may ultimately fail. Financial resources help absorb these failures. (Rogers 1962 5th ed, p. 282)| Early adopters| This is the second fastest category of individuals who adopt an innovation. These individuals have the highest degree of opinion leadership among the other adopter categories. Early adopters are typically younger in age, have a higher social status, have more financial lucidity, advanced education, and are more socially forward than late adopters.More discrete in adoption choices than innovators. Realize judicious choice of adoption will help them maintain central communication position (Rogers 1962 5th ed, p. 283). | Early Majority| Individuals in this category adopt an innovation after a varying degree of time. This time of adoption is significantly longer than the innovators and early adopters. Early Majority tend to be slower in the adoption process, have above average social status, contact with early adopters, and seldom hold positions of opinion leadership in a system (Rogers 1962 5th ed, p. 83)| Late Majority| Individuals in this category will adopt an innovation after the average member of the society. These individuals approach an innovation with a high degree of skepticism and after the majority of society has adopted the innovation. Late Majority are typically skeptical about an innovation, have below average social status, very little financial lucidity, in contact with others in late majority and early majority, very little opinion leadership. | Laggards| Individuals in this category are the last to adopt an innovation.Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals in this category show little to no opinion leadership. These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents and tend to be advanced in age. Laggards typically tend to be focused on traditions, likely to have lowest social status, lowest financial fluidity, be oldest of all other adopters, in contact with only family and close friends. | Rogers’ 5 Factors[edit source  | editbeta] Rogers defines several intrinsic characteristics of innovations that influence an individual’s decision to adopt or reject an innovation.Factor| Definition| Relative Advantage| How improved an innovation is over the previous generation. | Compatibility| The level of compatibility that an innovation has to be assimilated into an individual’s life. | Complexity or Simplicity| If the innovation is perceived as complicated or difficult to use, an individual is unlikely to adopt it. | Trialability| How easily an innovation may be experimented. If a user is able to test an innovation, the individual will be more likely to adopt it. | Observability| The extent that an innovation is visible to others.An innovation that is more visible will drive communication among the individual’s peers and personal networks and will in turn create more positive or negative reactions. | Failed Diffusion[ed it source  | editbeta] Rogers, in his Diffusion of Innovation writings, discussed a situation in Peru involving the implementation of water boiling to obtain higher health and wellness levels of the individuals living within the village of Los Molinas. The residents of the village have no knowledge of the link between particular sanitation and reduced levels of illness.The campaign was working with the villagers to try and teach them how to boil their water to make it healthier for consumption, as well as to burn their garbage, install working latrines, and report cases of illness to local health agencies. In Los Molinas, a stigma is linked to boiled water as being something that only the unwell consume, and thus, the idea of healthy residents boiling their water prior to consumption was frowned upon, and those who did so wouldnt be accepted by their society.Thus, the two-year campaign to help bring more sanitary ways of living to this village was considered to be largely unsucces sful. Much of the reason for the lack of success is because the social norms and standards of acceptance into society greatly outweighed the idea of taking on this innovation, even at the sake of the health, well-being, and greater levels of education to the villagers. This failure better exemplified the importance of the roles of the interpersonal communication channels that are involved in such a health-related campaign for social change.Burt, R. S. (1973) also looked at the process of diffusion in El Salvador and asks: Is there a differential influence exercised by social integration on participation in the diffusion process and is such influence, significant above that exerted by other important diffusion relevant variables? [12] Heterophily and communication channels[edit source  | editbeta] Lazarsfeld and Merton first called attention to the principles of homophily and its opposite, heterophily. 13] Using their definition, Rogers defines homophily as the degree to which pair s of individuals who interact are similar in certain attributes, such as beliefs, education, social status, and the like. [13] When given the choice, individuals usually choose to interact with someone similar to him or herself. [14] Furthermore, homophilous individuals engage in more effective communication because their similarities lead to greater knowledge gain as well as attitude or behavior change. 14] However, most participants in the diffusion of innovations are heterophilous, meaning they speak different languages, so to speak. [14] The problem is that diffusion requires a certain degree of heterophily; if two individuals are identical, no diffusion occurs because no new information can be exchanged. [14] Therefore, an ideal situation would involve two individuals who are homophilous in every way, except in knowledge of the innovation. [14] The Role of Social Systems[edit source  | editbeta] Opinion Leaders[edit source  | editbeta]Throughout the diffusion process there is evidence that not all individuals exert an equal amount of influence over all individuals. In this sense there are Opinion Leaders, leaders who are influential in spreading either positive or negative information about an innovation. Rogers relies on the ideas of Katz amp; Lazarsfeld and the two-step flow theory in developing his ideas on the influence of Opinion Leaders in the diffusion process. [15] Opinion Leaders have the most influence during the evaluation stage of the innovation-decision process and late adopters (Rogers 1964, p. 19). In addition opinion leaders have a set of characteristics that set them apart from their followers and other individuals. Opinion Leaders typically have greater exposure to the mass media, more cosmopolitan, greater contact with change agents, more social experience and exposure, higher socioeconomic status, and are more innovative. Research was done in the early 1950s at the University of Chicago attempting to assess the cost-effectiveness o f broadcast advertising on the diffusion of new products and services. 16] The findings were that opinion leadership tended to be organized into a hierarchy within a society, with each level in the hierarchy having most influence over other members in the same level, and on those in the next level below it. The lowest levels were generally larger in numbers, and tended to coincide with various demographic attributes that might be targeted by mass advertising. However, it found that direct word of mouth and example were far more influential than broadcast messages, which were only effective if they reinforced the direct influences.This led to the conclusion that advertising was best targeted, if possible, on those next in line to adopt, and not on those not yet reached by the chain of influence. It can be a waste of money to market to those not yet ready to buy. Other research relating the concept to public choice theory finds that the hierarchy of influence for innovations need not, and likely does not, coincide with hierarchies of official, political, or economic status. [17] Elites are often not innovators, and innovations may have to be introduced by outsiders and propagated up a hierarchy to the top decision makers.Electronic communication social networks[edit source  | editbeta] Prior to the introduction of the Internet, it was argued that social networks had a crucial role in the diffusion of innovation particularly tacit knowledge in the book The IRG Solution hierarchical incompetence and how to overcome it. The book argued that the widespread adoption of computer networks of individuals would lead to the much better diffusion of innovations, and with greater understanding of their possible shortcomings, and the identification of needed innovations that would not have otherwise occurred the Relevance paradox.The social model proposed by Ryan and Gross (1943) (Rogers 1962, p. 79) is expanded by Valente (1996)[18] who uses social networks as a basis f or adopter categorization instead of solely relying on the system-level analysis used by Ryan and Gross. Valente also looks at an individuals personal network, which is a different application than the organizational perspective espoused by many other scholars. [18] Organizations[edit source  | editbeta] Innovations are often adopted by organizations through two types of innovation-decisions: collective innovation decisions and authority innovation decisions.The collective innovation decision occurs when the adoption of an innovation has been made by a consensus among the members of an organization. The authority-innovation decision occurs when the adoption of an innovation has been made by very few individuals with high positions of power within an organization (Rogers 2005, p. 403). Unlike the optional innovation decision process, these innovation-decision processes only occur within an organization or hierarchical group.Within the innovation decision process in an organization there are certain individuals termed champions who stand behind an innovation and break through any opposition that the innovation may have caused. The champion within the diffusion of innovation theory plays a very similar role as to the champion used within the efficiency business model Six Sigma. The innovation process within an organization contains five stages that are slightly similar to the innovation-decision process that individuals undertake.These stages are: agenda-setting, matching, redefining/restructuring, clarifying, routinizing. Policy Diffusion[edit source  | editbeta] The theories of diffusion have spread beyond the original applied fields. In the case of political science and administration, policy diffusion focuses on how institutional innovations are adopted by other institutions, at the local, state or country level. An alternative term is policy transfer where the focus is more on the agents of diffusion such as in the work of Diane Stone.The first interests with regards to policy diffusion were focused in the variation over time (Berry ;amp; Berry 1990[19] or [1], state lottery adoption) but more recently the interest has shifted towards mechanisms (emulation, learning, coercion, as in Simmons ;amp; Elkins (2004)[20] or Gilardi (2010)[21] or in channels of diffusion (as in Jordana, Levi-Faur and Fernandez-i-Marin (2011)[22]), where the authors find that the creation of regulatory agencies is transmitted by country and sector channels).Diffusion of New Technology[edit source  | editbeta] Peres, Muller and Mahajan (2010) suggest that Innovation diffusion of a new technology is the process of the market penetration of new products and services that is driven by social in? uences, which include all interdependencies among consumers that affect various market players with or without their explicit knowledge. [23] Eveland (1986) evaluated diffusion of innovations from a strictly phenomenological view, which is very different than the othe r perspectives I found.He asserts that, â€Å"Technology is information, and exists only to the degree that people can put it into practice and use it to achieve values†[24] Diffusion of existing technologies has been measured in S curves. These technologies include radio, television, VCR, cable, flush toilet, clothes washer, refrigerator, home ownership, air conditioning, dishwasher, electrified households, telephone, cordless phone, cellular phone, per capita airline miles, personal computer and the Internet. This data[25] can be assessed as a valuable predictor for future innovations. Diffusion curves forInfrastructures[26] This data reveals stunning contrast in the diffusion process of personal technologies versus infrastructure. Consequences of adoption[edit source  | editbeta] There are both positive and negative outcomes when an individual or organization chooses to adopt a particular innovation. Rogers states that this is an area that needs further research because of the biased positive attitude that is associated with the adoption of an innovation (Rogers 2005, p. 470). In the Diffusion of Innovation, Rogers lists three categories for consequences: desirable vs. ndesirable, direct vs. indirect, and anticipated vs. unanticipated. In her article, Integrating Models of Diffusion of Innovations, Barbara Wejnert details two categories for consequences: public vs. private and benefits vs. costs. [27] Public vs. Private[edit source  | editbeta] Public consequences refer to the impact of an innovation on those other than the actor, while private consequences refer to the impact on the actor itself. [27] Public consequences usually involve collective actors, such as countries, states, organizations, or social movements. 27] The results are usually concerned with issues of societal well-being. [27] Private consequences usually involve individuals or small collective entities, such as a community. [27] The innovations are usually concerned with the i mprovement of quality of life or the reform of organizational or social structures. [27] Benefits vs. Costs[edit source  | editbeta] The benefits of an innovation obviously refer to the positive consequences, while the costs refer to the negative. [28] Costs may be monetary or nonmonetary, direct or indirect. 28] Direct costs are usually related to financial uncertainty and the economic state of the actor. [28] Indirect costs are more difficult to identify. [28] An example would be the need to buy a new kind of fertilizer to use innovative seeds. [28] Indirect costs may also be social, such as social conflict caused by innovation [28] Marketers are particularly interested in the diffusion process as it determines the success or failure of a new product. It is quite important for a marketer to understand the diffusion process so as to ensure proper management of the spread of a new product or service.Mathematical treatment[edit source  | editbeta] Main article: Logistic function The diffusion of an innovation typically follows an S shaped curve which often resembles a logistic function. Mathematical programming models such as the S-D model apply the diffusion of innovations theory to real data problems. [29] International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)[edit source  | editbeta] Several papers on the relationship between technology and the economy have been written by researchers at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).The pertinent papers deal with energy substitution and the role of work in the economy as well as with the long economic cycle. Using the logistic function, these researchers were able to provide new insight into market penetration, saturation and forecasting the diffusion of various innovations, infrastructures and energy source substitutions. [30] Cesare Marchetti published on Kondretiev waves and on diffusion of innovations. [31] Grubler (1990) presents a mathematical discussion of diffusion and substition models. 32] Criticism[edit source  | editbeta] Much of the evidence for the diffusion of innovations gathered by Rogers comes from agricultural methods and medical practice. Various computer models have been developed in order to simulate the diffusion of innovations. Veneris developed a systems dynamics computer model which takes into account various diffusion patterns modeled via differential equations. [33][34] There are a number of criticisms of the model which make it less than useful for managers.First, technologies are not static. There is continual innovation in order to attract new adopters all along the S-curve. The S-curve does not just happen. Instead, the s-curve can be seen as being made up of a series of bell curves of different sections of a population adopting different versions of a generic innovation. Rogers has placed the contributions and criticisms of diffusion research into four categories: pro-innovation bias, individual-blame bias, recall proble m, and issues of equality. 35] One of the cons of the Diffusion of Innovation approach is that the communication process involved is a one-way flow of information. The sender of the message has a goal to persuade the receiver, and there is little to no dialogue. The person implementing the change controls the direction and outcome of the campaign. In some cases, this is the best approach, but other cases require a more participatory approach.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

An Account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International Levels Essays

An Account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International Levels Essays An Account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International Levels Essay An Account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International Levels Essay An account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International levels By Keshav R. Dhuri Goa University INTRODUCTION: Among the countries imparting library and information science (LIS) education, India would rank within five nations chronologically, in output and contribution to the development of thought content. If it was Melvil Dewey who made an auspicious beginning in the west, then much more notable contributions came from Dr Ranganathan in the east in all domains of LIS knowledge, thought and content. For LIS education and pedagogy from India in general and from Ranganathan in particular, the it has been unmatched and the world has always turned towards India for something new to emerge from and excel. India has been a pioneer in education and research in LIS, particularly among the developing nations who are looking for a just educational environment in this context. What India can offer to the developing nations in imparting best education, training and research to the aspirants has been discussed in this paper? It gives a brief description of various aspects of LIS education in India and its implied suitability to the aspirants of educatee from the developing nations. PROFILE OF LIS EDUCATION IN INDIA: 1) Genesis and Growth LIS education in India started in 1911, when the Baroda School was started by W A Borden due to the initiative taken by Sayaji Rao Gaikwad II, the then Maharaja of State of Baroda. Since then, India has not looked back and has been striding high in the ladder A. Y. Asundi and c. R. Karisiddappa Information Officer, Siddaganga Institute of Technology. The paper presents a succinct profile and contributions of Indian LIS education since its inception. It also attempts to bring to the fore how this profile presents its international potentiality and perspective scenario in context to developing countries. Bull. Inf. This apart, several universities are concurrently running Distance Education Programmes too. The details of the developments of LIS education in India are well recorded in the status report of the Curriculum Development Committees (CDC) Report on Curriculum for LIS by the University Grants Commission (UGC) 2 ) UGC Efforts: The UGC efforts in the development of LIS education are well evidenced by the three committees that were constituted to formulate model curriculum and pedagogic guidelines for the LIS courses in India. The Ranganathan reports on University and College Libraries and Library Science Education were the first landmarks in this regard. Later, report of the Kaula Committee on Curriculum Development in LIS Education was published in 1992. This was followed with the Karisiddappa Committee report on Curriculum Development in LIS in 2002. The impact of these efforts were first seen in the continuous development of the curriculum with changing times. Second, the UGC recognised LIS as a discipline on par with other pure and applied subjects. Third was the growth of teaching departments in various universities. And finally, it also necessitated the need for qualified personnel to teach the subject, which gave impetus to start the masters and research degrees programmes. Thus the curriculum, developed over the years for the LIS matches with the modem and contemporary developments in the field and has been responsible for the creation of manpower to man the different types of professional responsibilities, in practice and teaching. ) Role of Professional Bodies and Other Agencies: The role of professional associations in India in the promotion of the LIS education and its systematic development has also been noteworthy. The three main professional associations-the Indian Library Association (ILA), the Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centres (IASLIC), and the Indian Association of Teachers of Library and Inform ation Science (IATLIS)-have been holding annual conferences at the national and international levels to take stock of manpower needs and supply of qualified manpower from the departments. In particular, the IA TLIS has been focusing much closer on the education sector than the other two; it widened the scope of the membership to plasticizing librarians so that the teachers and practioners share a common platform towards the developments of education sector and the needs of the practice sector. The IATLIS with ILA and IASLIC also organised jointly a National Seminar on Hundred years of Library Science Education and its Future in October 1987. IATLIS and AGLIS again rganised jointly a National Seminar on IT and its Impact on LIS Education and Library Management in 19965, Two unique courses were developed by the Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) and the Indian National Science and Documentation Centre (lNSDOC) to cater to the needs of special libraries in particular. However, the inculcation of the graduates from these institutions in teaching programmes have given a new direction to the educational paradigm of LIS. While DRTC is an autonomous central ins titute under the Indian Statistical Institute, INSDOC is a constituent centre of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. The National Centre for Science Information is also offering a postmasters degree course with intensive application of IT to LIS. 4) Levels of Courses in LIS in India In India a variety of courses in LIS are offered and as such the learners have a wide DESIDOC Bull. Inf. Technol. , choice. From a three months Certificate Course to two years Diploma Courses are available to create Para-professionals. The Bachelors, Masters, MPhil and PhD degree programmes are also offered by most of the universities conducting LIS courses. Even at the Masters degree level, there are two courses offering one year BLISc, and one year MLISc or a two years integrated MLISc programme. Besides these, library science is also offered as an optional subject at the three years degree programme to inculcate professional knowledge with college level itself. The UGC report of the CDC gives more details on the structure of these categories. 5) Distance Education in LIS in India: Besides the formal educational programmes in LIS, India also has a good infrastructure of distance education programmes in LIS. As many as 52 universities are offering distance education prgrammes in LIS; some of them such as the Indira Gandhi National Open University (lGNOU) are providing this facility exclusively. IGNOU offers Bachelors, Masters, and Postmasters degrees and even is in the line to extend doctoral programmes in LIS through distance education mode. The course material and the audio- video lessons prepared by IGNOU can match to any international standards in this regard. 6) Curriculum Development and Research Growth: As already mentioned the curriculum of LIS has been continuously revised by he departments at least once in five years. In some cases, it is even once in three years. It takes recourse to the progress of the subject in its various dimensions. The three committees, mentioned already, have been second came only after 20 years. But, today the number of PhDs in LIS far exceeds the time frame; there are 1000 estimated PhD holders in India and each one of them has been guiding several st udents from their respective departments. In the next five years the number of PhD holders in LIS in India would be around SOOO-estimated at about five times more than today. A national meeting on Research in LIS was held in 1994 and numbers of papers on this subject were published to take stock of research output Infrastructure and Other Physical facilities UGCs initiative in providing adequate infrastructure to the LIS departments has enabled them to equip with IT laboratories to provide intensive training in their use. It is a matter of pride that among the developing nations India has the best suited curriculum with orientation to technology applications, (India has been the earliest to include a compulsory paper on library automation as early as in 1980s). The National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) under UGC have provided enough impetus towards creating good infrastructure, for both libraries and teaching departments. The faculty to teach the traditional and IT related subjects is also available in good number as is evidenced by the large number of conferences, workshops and refresher courses organised by several professional bodies, and the Academic Staff Colleges. The IATLIS also organised a National Conference on the Study of the Infrastructure Facilities available in the LIS departments of the country8. Besides, a statistical presentation in this context has also been given in the UGC Reportl. 8) IT in LIS Education: After the USA, the UK and some European countries, India is one among the few countries, where information and communication technology (ICT)-oriented LIS teaching is being provided. In late 1960s and early 1970s teaching of computer application commenced in Indian library science departments. The courses run by the DRTC and INSDOC also included a paper on library automation. The starting of the INFLIBNET and the Online Information 8 DESIDOC Bull. Inf. Technol. , Retrieval Experiments carried out at National Aeronautical Laboratory and INSDOC gave boost to the inculcation of new technology trends. The contributions of private agencies, in particular the online and CD-ROM database search services started by Informatics (India) are responsible for the initiation of technology culture in Indian libraries and among the library science teachers. A detailed account of technology application in India libraries and library science education has been given by Kumar. The National Information System in Science and Technology/Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (NISSA T IDS IR) and other research and development organisations like Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) and Sectoral Information Centres under NISSA T have also contributed to this process of technology application in libraries and the manpower development to man many of these libraries and information centres. Today, India with many projects on digital libraries on hand can be considered as technologically advanced in LIS education with IT applications. Many national and international conferences organised in this aspect gives a clear idea of its technological capabilities. INTERNATIONALISATION OF LIBRARY SCIENCE EDUCATION: The profile of LIS education development prescribed under above shows Indias unique experiences in different aspects of LIS education and place it on par with developed nations in imparting LIS education to the aspirants within and outside the country. Students from Kenya, Ethiopia, Thailand and from SAARC countries: and from many African and South-East Asian regions are coming to India under the fellowship of Indian Council for Cultural Relation (lCCR) for pursuing studies in LIS (from bachelors to PhD programmes) and leading the LIS education mantle in their respective countries. In 2005 two Indian professors of LIS were invited by the Danish Government to participate in the workshop organised by the Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, where the participants were LIS educators from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The two scholars are members of the Discussion Group formed by International Federation of Library Association (IFLA) with a special emphasis on LIS education in developing countries. There is growing awareness in the Asia-Pacific region about the training and practice of library and information professionals in the 21st century and need for a regional cooperation with the countries like India, which is affluent with vast experience of teaching, research and practice in LIS. Study by Abdullahi, et al. needs to be referred here in order to surface the ppropriateness of India taking a lead-role in this context, particularly with an emphasis on developing countries. They made a theoretical survey on the importance of international and intercultural opportunities in serving as essential components In educating and training library and information professionals. The scope of the paper is though limited to Europe and North America, but the kind of opportunities identified by them can be a good frame work for the others to set-in their goals. Promotion of distance education is another area where internationalisation of LIS education can be promoted. India, since last 25 years; has been imparting distance education programme is LIS, particularly through IGNOU. IGNOU over the years has achieved substantial experience in this area, has created excellent course material using nations best subject experts to write the lessons, and has also broadcasted the lessons through its national television network. Like India, many other developing countries such as Ghana have been utilising ICT for distance education programmes. Martey in his paper has described the ICT scene in Ghana from 1996 to 2004. His paper emphases on the benefits that distance learners in Ghana will derive from an ICT -enhanced distance education. The paper also makes some suggestions as how academic libraries in Ghana can assist distance learners. India with her experience can also exchange the views with others in DESIDOC Bull. Inf. technology, the developing world. The suggestions made by Subba Rao in this context are also worth mentioning STUDY OF ISSUES RELATING TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: The broad perspectives on making LIS curriculum viable for the global issues were Presented by Karisiddappa. They also deliberated on major issues like emergence of information and knowledge society. The paper enlisted nine major factors that needed inclusion in the LIS curriculum. Many of them have now find place in the curriculum on LIS developed by the CDC of UGC. The curriculum has a viable balance between the traditional and technological aspects, practices, skills, and techniques. Karisiddappa has succinctly stressed the need for a model curriculum for developing countries. Shiholo and Ocholla21 in their paper have deliberated on the training needs of LIS professionals in Kenya. Their paper implies to seek international collaboration in developing a need-based curriculum. Indian expertise can be a part of this exercise to fulfill the requirements. Wijetunge stated that Poor information system has poor curriculum development in Sri Lanka. Ocholla and Bothma made some detailed study on the status, trends and challenges of library and information education and training in Eastern and Southern Africa. Similar studies have come from Mexico by Morales and from Croatia by Horvat. In the comparative case study of graduate courses in library and information studies in the UK, USA, India and Iran Mortezaie and Naghshineh have highlighted the need for curricula revamping in terms of diversity of courses offered; university independence; diversity of degrees offered; ease and flexibility of the higher education system; updated course programmes; emphasis on research; and course and curricula development. The paper also laments on a widening chasm between LIS education in developing countries and those in developed countries. In this context the paper by Asundi and Karisiddappa has presented a detailed perspective on the developing countries needs in their paper presented at the Copenhagen workshop in Denmark. Leif has identified number of collaborative aspects, which are not successful in Europe but could be of relevant to developing nations. The issues of collaboration can be examined by the Indian LIS teachers to make concerted efforts to achieve them. Asundi have also identified some areas of study relevant to developing countries. Like the Bologna Declaration-an international agreement with the help of IFLA could be arrived at with the Indian library and information science Departments working towards achieving the collaborative and participative attitude with The developing country schools. Chaudhry identified The aim to look into projects undertaken to promote collaboration between LIS education programmes in South East Asia. He suggested a plan for developing a repository of learning objects for facilitating sharing of teaching materials for improved LIS education. Faculty development was identified another important area of possible future collaboration in the region with possible involvement of international forums. Wijetunge, made a descriptive survey of LIS teachers of Sri Lanka. He identified a strange reason for the dearth of faculty to teach LIS subjects in Sri Lanka. He also expressed lack of full-time teachers to teach in LIS schools resulting in a set-back to professional education in Sri Lanka. Though the paper suggests for a complete manpower survey of LIS professionals, the gap needs to be filled-up as early as possible. Until then neighboring countries like India, which has needed expertise can help under the collaborative approach adopted by the SAARC countries. The two sections, the internationalization and the issues relating to developing countries, should be placed in juxtaposition and superimposed with the profile of the LIS education presented in the Sections International forums like IFLA have endorsed this View as is evident from the formation of Discussion Group under its purview. The trends in LIS education are rather very conspicuous and the influence of technology is diversifying its approach. Hence, the countries with both traditional approach and suitability to adopt the technology will endure the durability for the future. CONCLUSION: The LIS education in India has a unique profile, as it started as a voluntary vocation by many university libraries. This trend followed for at least a decade or so. An independent identity to the course was reached only in early 1970s. Despite these lacunae, it has progressed well and has attracted the world focus particularly that of the developing world. The profile of LIS education given in the paper shows the landmark achievements in its stride for recognition. Today, it has reached a stage where it is being considered as a course to be reckoned with technologically affluent programmes, and being considered on the agenda of apex bodies offering technical education. It is influenced by within and goes with concurrent progress made by India in the field of IT. In traditional subjects of LIS too, India stands different with scholarly contribution by Or Ranganathan and his contemporaries and disciples. Or Ranganathans contributions are being considered in the design of computerized information retrieval systems. Eisenberg, Michael B, et al. mentioned that an integration of traditional areas and IT developments is seen vibrantly in India as is evidenced by the PhD theses generated by the departments of LIS of Indian universities. The range of LIS subjects researched in India presents a very broad base, expressing in itself its potentialities and expertise in conventional subjects like library classification, library cataloguing, and library management and in the specialized areas like, digital libraries and open archives initiatives. The internationalization of LIS education is an issue being discussed at many international forums, and the role that Europe and North America played in the early genesis, was noteworthy. However, the needs of the developing countries are variable and they are looking towards viable partners to suit their social, cultural, economic and political environment. In consideration of these aspects, India can be considered as a viable partner in reshaping LIS education in developing countries. REFERENCES: 1. Dayani, M. H. (2005). Library and information science educational curriculum: Guidelines for evolution. Quarterly Journal of Library and Information Science 3 (1): 1-20. (Persian language). 2. Fattahi, R. (2005). Education for librarianship in Iran before the 1979 Islamic Revolution: An historical review of the American roles and influences. Library Review 54 (5): 316-327. 3. Fattahi, R. , et. al. (2006). The new MA curriculum for librarianship and information science: The report of a research project. Iranian Journal of Information Science and Technology 4 (2) 4. Ghadirian, A. , ; Asili, G. (2005). The prophecy of government, university and industry in national development. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education: 127. (Persian language). 5. Gharibi, H. (n. d. ) Information Committee bulletin, No. 8, Available: irandoc. ac. ir/Com/Newsletter/Bulletin-8. htm#A ?. (Persian language). 6. Hayati, Z. (2008). Library and information science challenges in universities of Iran. Quarterly Journal of Library and Information Science 1 (2): 23. (Persian language). 7. Human resource development. (2002). Damparvar Journal 3:9. (Persian language). 8. Iranian Book News Agency (IBNA). (2008). Library and information science educational curricula should be correct: An interview with Dr. Horri. Available: ibna. ir/vdcgwq9x. ak9n34prra. html. (Persian language). 9. Kumar, P. S. G. Computerisation of Indian libraries. B. R. Publishing, New Delhi, 1977.